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Capric acid (Decanoic acid) goat fat.
Caproic acid (Hexanoic acid) Characteristic odor of Limburger cheese, goat fat.
Caprylic acid (Octanoic acid) goat fat.
Caramel candies Small, square confections made of butter, cream, and sugar. They can be melted for use in desserts that call for a caramel coating. Caramel candies are sold individually wrapped in packages or in bulk in well-stocked food stores.
Carotene Pro-vitamin A. An antioxidant used to decrease oxidative rancidity of fat or oil. Enhances color of finished foods; color additive
Charlotte This molded dessert is composed of a filling surrounded by ladyfingers or bread. Apple charlotte is a golden-crusted dessert made by baking a thick apple compote in a mold lined with buttered bread. Cold charlottes are made in a ladyfinger-lined mold and filled with a Bavarian cream; for frozen charlottes, a frozen soufflé or mousse replaces the Bavarian cream.
Chips Individually cut pats of butter adhered to greaseproof paper.
Cholesterol A sterol with a multi-ringed (steroid) structure. The amount of cholesterol per gram of butter is 2 mg.
Choux pastry A moist dough composed of flour, butter, eggs, and water, that is piped into various shapes and baked. The resulting pastry is used to prepare desserts such as cream puffs, éclairs, and profiteroles.
Churning Physical process (batch or continuous) by which liquid cream is ÒworkedÓ to coalesce the butterfat globules, with the concurrent expulsion of buttermilk.
Cis configuration Has the hydrogen atoms on the same side of the double bond, particularly with unsaturated fatty acids
Citric acid (2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid) Present in citrus fruits; used as a flavoring agent in foods; present in cells. An antioxidant used to decrease oxidative rancidity of fat or oil. Inhibits metal-catalized oxidation and production of dark colors; metal chelating agents.
Clarified butter Also called drawn butter or ghee. Simply defined, clarified butter is unsalted butter that has the milk solids and water removed so all that remains is pure liquid golden-yellow butterfat. The advantages of this type of butter is its long keeping quality (several months refrigerated) and its high smoke point (can be used in frying without burning). To clarify butter, melt unsalted butter in a heavy saucepan over low heat. Skim off the froth from the top and carefully pour the clear liquid into a jar, leave the milky residue behind. Clarified butter is used in sautés, sauces and in baked dishes.
Clotted cream Or clabbered creme. A type of thick cream with a yellowish crust from the English counties of Devon and Cornwall. Clotted cream is an essential ingredient of a cream tea . It contains an average fat content of 63% (the minimum is 55%) and is produced by cooking full-fat milk over a bain-marie. Known as creme fraiche in France, racreme in Scandanavia, and in England and America as clabber cream. ("Clabber" is an archaic word for a cupboard or pantry.)
Coarse Flavor characteristic associated with using high temperatures in pasteurization of cream with slight acid development.
Colligative properties Properties which depend on the number of molecules in solution, a function of concentration and molecular weight, rather than just on the total percent concentration. Such properties include boiling point elevation, freezing point depression, and osmotic concentration.
Color Color in butter comes primarily from the presence of carotene and xanthophyll which are natural compounds present in the feed of cows.
Condensed milks Condensed milk products are useful because they supply milk fat and solids in concentrated form, and are treated to keep for at least several months.
Cone penetrometer The most common type of instrument currently used in the United States to measure the rheological qualities of butter. A 20¡ angle cone is used. The depth of penetration into the sample, constant cone angle, dropping assembly mass, temperature and penetration time are all measured by the penetrometer.
Continentals Foil wrapped portions of salted or unsalted butter packed in trays for food service use.
Cooked Flavor characteristic associated with using high temperatures in pasteurization of sweet cream.
Cooking fats Refer to butter, margarine, vegetable oils, and vegetable shortening, which are used to moisten and flavor foods during cooking and to enrich and tenderize baked goods.
Cream The word cream comes from the Greek chriein, which means anoint," and which is also the root of Christ ("the anointed one"). The link between ancient ritual and rich food is oil, the substance used to anoint the chosen, and the defining element of cream. Cream is a form of milk in which the fat globules have become more concentrated than usual, whether by rising to the top in a bottle or spinning off from the heavier water phase in a centrifuge. There are several grades of cream marketed today, such as heavy cream and light screm. Also as a verb: To beat until soft, smooth, and fluffy, as for butter and sugar.
Cream puff paste Pâte à Choux . Somewhere between a batter and a dough, cream puff paste is made by beating flour and then eggs into boiling water and butter. Once shaped and baked, it is crisp on the outside, almost hollow inside and forms a convenient container for whipped cream, pastry cream or ice cream (cream puffs, éclairs and profiteroles, e.g.). Croûtons
Cream tea A popular feature of British social life, combining the gentility of afternoon tea with the indulgence of scones and clotted cream.
Creaming or 'to cream' This mixing or beating technique not only combines ingredients to make a uniform mixture, but also incorporates air into this mixture. A whisk, wooden spoon, or electric mixer with paddle attachment can be used. The butter should be at room temperature so it incorporates the sugar sufficiently to produce a smooth and creamy batter that is light and fluffy. Follow your recipe's instructions, as this step can vary in length from seconds to minutes, depending on how much air needs to be incorporated into the batter so it rises properly in the oven.
Crème anglaise A French term for a pourable vanilla custard sauce served hot or cold with desserts. Also used as a base for making ice cream. Consists of whole milk flavored with a vanilla bean, sugar and egg yolks. It is a rich sauce that can accommodate other flavors such as liqueurs, melted chocolate and fruit purées.
Creme fraiche Pronounced 'krem fresh'. It is a thick and smooth heavy cream with a wonderfully rich and velvety texture. This matured cream has a nutty, slightly sour taste produced by culturing pasteurized cream with a special bacteria. In France, where it originated, the cream is unpasteurized so it naturally contains the bacteria necessary to make crème frache. The butterfat content varies (usually 30%), as there is no set standard so you will find every brand tastes a little differently. Known as creme fraiche in France, racreme in Scandanavia, and in England and America as clabber cream.
Cultured butter Fresh cream butter to which lactic acid cultures have been added for the development of a particular flavor. Most popular in European countries.
Cups Portions in plastic cups with peelable heat-sealed lids. Tumble packed or collated.
Cut or cutting in A technique used in pastry making (scones, biscuits) involving the mixing of a cold solid fat (butter, margarine, shortening) into dry ingredients (flour mixture) until the mixture is blended but still contains small flour-coated pieces of cold fat. This combining of the cold fat and dry ingredients must be done quickly and with a light hand so the the fat does not melt. For light and fluffy scones or biscuits, the fat should not become too soft or cut too fine. A pastry blender, two knives, fingers, food processor, or an electric mixer with the paddle attachment can be used.