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Debates, nutrition, and fats comparison. Some sources that may interest:

Low-Fat Diet Does Not Cut Health Risks, Study Finds, NYT
A Call for Higher Standards of Evidence for Dietary Guidelines, American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and composition of human aortic plaques, Lancet

Bauman, D.E., and A.L. Lock. 2006. Animal products and human health: perceptions, opportunities and challenges. Proc. Cornell Nutrition. Conference. pp. 45-57



Enig, Mary. Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutritionof Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol. Silver Spring, MD: Bethesda Press, 2000.

Enig, Mary, and Sally Fallon. Eat Fat, Lose Fat. New York: Hudson Street Press, 2005.

Groves, Barry. Polyunsaturated Fats and Cancer in Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 1998: Food in the Arts. Totnes: Prospect Books, 1999

Groves, Bary. Trick or Treat.  London. Hammersmith Press, 2008

Planck, Nina. Real Food: What to Eat and Why. New York: Bloomsbury, 2006.

Taube, Gary. “What If It’s All Been a Big Fat Lie?” New York Times, July 7, 2002.

Glossary from: Keller's Creamery; "Butter in best" from National Butter Task Force, America's Dairy Farmers, California Manufacturing Milk Advisory Board; the Joy of Baking by Stephanie Jaworski.

History from "Princely packets of golden health (A History of Butter Packaging)" by Milton E. Parker, 1948. [See pdf]. History and culture from Organic Valley "ButterBook"; Keller's Creamery; Burslem & pothols from Gladstone Pottery Museum. Arctic ice from "Near a Thousand Tables: A History of Food" by Felipe Fernandez-Armesto.

Manufacture from Professor Douglas Goff, University of Guelph (adapted from alfa Laval/Tetra Pak 1995. Dairy Processing Handbook , Tetra Pak Processing Systems, S-221 86, Lund, Sweden). Also from Harold McGee. On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen. 1984. Collier Books. ISBN: 0-02-034621-2. Details of steps from Teddington Cheese. Margarine from Harold McGee, "On Food and Cooking." Bacterial lineage from the NIH Taxonomy Browser. Butter consumption rates for 1995 from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service for 1997 and for 2004 and 2009.

Chinese consumption from Asia United Theological University. Decline in US butter consumption from USDA's "Major Trends in U.S. Food Supply, 1909-99" (pdf). Fat consuption from USDA's "Profiling Food Consumption in America" Chapter 2, Table 2-3.

Potent odorants in fresh and heated butter from "Flavor Chemistry: Industrial and Academic Research (Acs Symposium Series, No 756)" by Sara J. Risch, p52-3. Ghee, butter melting points, and much info on fats (p 290-292) from "The Oxford Companion to Food" by Alan Davidson.

Rancidity from Measuring Rancidity in Fats and Oils (pdf) from Ralston Analytical Laboratories; "Troubleshooting milk flavor problems" (pdf) by Virginia Ishler and Bob Roberts, Penn State  Department of Dairy and Animal Science. Milkfat from cows fed diets higher in stearic acid from California Dairy Research Foundation.

Various details: Slovenia chamber pot story from Frank A. Gosar. Welsh borderland kiln-sites from Alan George Vince's thesis. Cartwrights from Grandma's Tea Leaf Ironstone: A History and Study of English and American Potteries, by Annise Doring Heaivilin.

Butter churns from Wendell W. Stream of Churn Castle Antiques, Woodward Iowa; Dazey company and its churns from Dazey butter churns Butch and Dea Allen of St. Joseph, Mo.

Various references from Encyclopædia Britannica: some butter composition, Butyric Acid, ghee, buttermilk. Making your own butter adapted from "Make yourself a little pat of butter" by Jennifer Blacke, Mother Earth news, Dec 2001, and Hoegger Supply Company, and Jonathan White. Croissant history from teh Food Lover's Companion 2nd edition, by Sharon Tyler Herbst.

USDA grades from "How to Buy Butter," Home and Garden Bulletin Number 257, United States Department of Agriculture; Offical Flavor Characteristics used by the USDA from "United States Standards for Grades of Butter (PDF)" Effective August 31, 1989, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service Dairy Division.

Buttermilk substitutions from Cook's Thesaurus. Penicillium roqueforti from "Biotechnology - The Science and the Business" by Vivian Moses, p. 542.

Energy value of foods from The Composition of Foods, 5th Edition (1991), from The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office.

Some chemistry from pgs 57-60 in the Scientific American Library Series book, Molecules, by P.W. Atkins (1987).

Bonnyville Creamery History and photo from Bonnyville and District Museum. Morocan custom of storing smen until a girl's wedding from "Cooking at the Kasbah: Recipes from My Moroccan Kitchen" by Kitty Morse, & Laurie Smith. Various butter translations from the United Nations' "The technology of traditional milk products in developing countries".

Smen in Lebanon and Ethiopia from Oxford Companion to Food. Smen recipe from "Couscous: Fresh and Flavorful Contemporary Recipes" by Kitty Morse. Bata-kusai from "Japan’s National Identity: Nationalists or Not?" by Andrew J. Eckstein, March 21, 1999, Lehigh University. Japanese consumption from USDA Foreign Agricultural Service's "GAIN Report" on Japan, 2003; also from the "JETRO Marketing Guidebook For Major Imported Products"


Mrs. Grace Herr from USDA photograph by Madeleine Osborne, number N-5903. Series VII.1, Photographs, Box 7.1/3, file "Photographs--Butter churn, 1944," USDA History Collection, Special Collections, National Agricultural Library.;"Betty at the Churn" from the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, Deerfield MA. Processing milk into butter and cheese was one way of preserving dairy products before refrigeration. The fat in the cream coalesced into butter as it was agitated, or "churned". The thin buttermilk left behind was washed out before the butter was carefully packed away. New England farm women played a vital economic role in the nineteenth century by producing surplus butter and cheese to sell at the local store. The storekeeper in turn sold large quantities of this locally produced butter and cheese to traders who shipped it as far away as the West Indies. The Allen sisters sought to evoke an earlier era when they posed this young woman churning butter with a cat eagerly lapping up the cream spilling on the floor. inscription: .01: verso, graphite, "40" .02: verso, graphite, "Betty at the Churn/ 75"; "Lizzie Temple"; wet stamp, "FRANCES and MARY ALLEN" . Woman standing at wooden churn shelves with milk pans to the right. Cat licking spills to the right. Site is the Allen house kitchen north wall. Identical to 2001.27.02.; Queen and Duke of Edinburgh from NZ History.net.nz (Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington, New Zealand; Reference: National Publicity Studios Collection, F 42081 1/2). Fraternal Brand from Department of Primary Industries and Department of Sustainability and Environment, Victoria, Australia. Firkin from Connecticut Antique Shop. Daisy the cow from Wickham Family home place in the mid 1940s.; Leuconostoc mesenteroides micrograph from Aline Lonvaud-Funel, Faculty of Œnology, University Victor Segalen, Bordeaux, France. Small butter molds from Van Vurens Butter Molds & Stamps. Richland Diary/Oshkosh/Butter Wagon in Farmyard by Hine, Lewis W. Firkins from Earl Soham Brewery. Grandma Moses paionting from Grandma Moses: 25 Masterworks, in Private Collection, number Kallir 965. President Cleveland from from the Perry-Castañeda Library, University of Texas at Austin. Barrel churn and Glass butter churns with electric motors from Cracker Barrel. Butter churn in front of thatched-roof stone cottage at Bun Raìthe Folk Park in County Clare, Ireland from Christopher League. 4 quart churn photo from CK Antiques. 3 quart Dazey from Historea. Metal Dazey from Allens. Swing churn, German butter box and Metal Dazey churn from Stearns History Museum, St. Cloud, MN. The butter working room at Grassmere Butter Factory in South West Victoria from "Butter Factories" at Department of Natural Resources & Environment, East Melbourne, Australia. Nice Old 1907 Dazey Butter Churn from Ruby Lane. Pouring butter from mechanical churn from Internet 1996 pavilion. Photo of Table on the Coulter farm with blocks of butter from Chilliwack Museum and Archives. Pouring cream in Fresno, CA from The Dairy Processing Plant of the Agricultural Operations at California State University, Fresno.

Steel Engraving of Chenango River, 1864, Beautifully detailed steel engraving of "On the Chenango River, Chenango Co, NY" The print is engraved by W. Wellstood from an original painting by D. Johnson. The following inscription is at the bottom of the print: "Engraved for the Ladies Repository from the origninal painting...". The print is an original engraving from The Ladies' Repository, edited by Rev. I.W. Wiley D.D., Volume 24, published in 1864 by Poe and Hitchcock, Carlton and Porter, and J.P. Magee.

Lumberjacks from An Ethnographic Biography of Paul Peter Buffalo, at the The University of Minnesota. Interior view of a logging camp in Minnesota, 1921. Photograph Collection, Postcard, 1921 Minnesota Historical Society Location No. HD5.7 r36 Negative No.; Lumber camp dining hall, Itasca or Cass County, Minnesota, 1910. Photograph Collection, 1910 Minnesota Historical Society Location No. HD5.7 p209 Negative No. 61774; Cook shack in a logging camp near Bemidji, 1908. Creator: Arthur A. Richardson Photograph Collection, Postcard, 1908 Minnesota Historical Society Location No. HD5.7 r43 Negative No. 23392.

Chamberpot includes mark of W. A. A. & Co. was used by William Alsager Adderley Longton, Staffordshire, England after 1876 (now, Royal Doulton Tableware Ltd).

Michel Eugène Chevreul dans son laboratoire pendant le bombardement de 1870-1871 Journal des journaux. Supplément, 2e série, n° 17,  29 août 1886. Portrait: Michel-Eugène Chevreul, vers 50 ans, lithographie de Maurin, 1836, gravure de Conrad Cook.

Japanese butter from Lisa Onaga. Hokkaido farm from Agricultual Extension Services in Hokkaido. Yak photos from Magnus Enarssons. Lhasa butter sale, and lamps from John Horrigan. Kumbum monestary from Joseph Rock, photographed in 1925, via Harvard University Visual Information Access. Tibetan festival info from Club for Chinese Professional Mathematical Scientists.

Swedish cow, factory, and farm photos from svensk-mjölk, the Swedish Dairy Association's 2003 annual report. New Zealan farm photos from Dairy Insight 2002-2003 Annual Report. Also from the Canadian dairy Commision 2002-3 Annual Report.

Terda photo from "Cuisine Marocaine". Cous cous photo from Menara, Maroc Telecom. Ninhursag temple facade from University of Alabama.

Detail of Rouen Cathedral from "Rouen Cathedral, Part of the cathedral called Butter Tower," published by Anciens Etab, Paris. Map of Rouen from "Stadsgezichten met verzen in drie talen," published by Jonghe, C. de, 1650-1700. From the Electronic Text Centre Leiden.