Glossary: H - O : Butter
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Half-and-half Intermediate in composition between milk and cream; it must be at least 10.5% fat.
Heavy cream Also known as whipping cream, heavy cream is a rich dairy product with a butterfat content of at least 36 percent. Between 36 and 40% milkfat
Hydrogenation Is the process of adding hydrogen molecules directly to an unsaturated fatty acid from sources such as vegetable oils to convert it to a semi-solid form such as margarine or shortening. Hydrogenation contributes important textural properties to food. The degree of hydrogenation influences the firmness and spreadability of margarines, flakiness of pie crust and the creaminess of puddings. Hydrogenated oils are sometimes used in place of other fats with higher proportions of saturated fatty acids such as butter or lard.
Hydrolysis A chemical reaction in which a linkage between subunits of a large molecule is broken; a molecule of water enters the reaction and becomes part of the end products
Lactic acid (2-hydroxypropanoic acid) Found in sour milk and sauerkraut; formed in muscles during exercise.
Lactones Integral components of butter flavor derived from hydroxy alkanoic acids which spontaneously lactonize to form lactones.
Lecithin A phospholipid naturally present in butter which functions as an emulsifier. An antioxidant used to decrease oxidative rancidity of fat or oil. Water scavenger to prevent lipolytic rancidity; emulsifier
Legal pasteurization Appropriate heat treatment on approved and sealed equipment to ensure the bacterial and enzymatic quality of the product.
Lemon curd This cooked mixture of lemon juice (and sometimes grated zest), sugar, butter and egg yolks makes a rich, tart spreading cream that can be used as a filling. Many variations exist using other citrus fruits.
Liaison A binding agent made up of egg yolks and cream, used for thickening soups and sauces. It should always be added off heat just before serving to prevent curdling. The basic ratio is 3 parts cream to 1 part yolk.
Light butter Currently proposed and under development as a food produced to resemble butter, that contains 52 percent butterfat, made from milk or cream, or both, that has been pasteurized. Vitamin A must be added to provide 3,300 IU per 100 grams and may contain skim milk, buttermilk, whey or whey-derived ingredients.
Light cream Sometimes called coffee cream or table cream, is 18-30 percent butterfat.
Light whipping cream Between 30 and 36% butterfat
Lipase An enzyme found in raw milk and also produced by microorganisms that split the fat molecules into fatty acids which create flavor.
Lipids A broad group of fatlike substances with similar properties. Animal or plant substances that are soluble in non-polar solvents. There are no monomer-polymer units as in polypeptides or polysaccharides. Lipids do aggregate, but these interactions are non-covalent. Lipids are used for long-term energy storage, insulation, padding, membranes, vitamins, secondmessengers, hormones. There are two types, Saponifable and Non-saponifable.
Maitre d'hotel, a la (French) A yellow butter sauce consisting of lemon juice, parsley, salt, pepper, and drawn butter.
Malty A distinctive, harsh flavor suggestive of malt.
Mantequilla Spanish for butter
Margarine A butter substitute made originally from other animal fats, but nowadays exclusively from vegetable oils, is, like homogenization and pasteurization, a French innovation.
Mascarpone A soft unripened cheese that belongs to the cream cheese family. It comes from switzerland and italy and is a thick, rich, sweet and velvety, ivory-colored cheese produced from cow's milk that has the texture of clotted or sour cream. It delicate and mild flavor is great with fresh fruit and is probably best known for its use in tiramisu. Produced mainly in the fall and winter it is sold in plastic tubs and can be found in specialty food stores and in the deli section of some grocery stores.
Methyl ketones An essential component of butter flavor formed by hydrolysis and decarboxylation of B-keto acid esters.
Methyl silicone An antioxidant used to decrease oxidative rancidity of fat or oil. Inhibits oxidation; antifoam agent
Milk The lacteal secretion, practically free from colostrum, obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy cows.
Milkfat The lipid components of milk, as produced by the cow, and found in commercial milk and milk-derived products, mostly comprised of triglyceride.
Mixed triglyceride Are triglycerides with different fatty acids upon the glycerol backbones.
Monoglyceride Glycerol combined with only one fatty acid
Mottled Spots of lighter and deeper shades of yellow. Attributable to insufficient working of the butter, resulting in an uneven distribution of salt and moisture.
Mount A technique where small pieces of cold, unsalted butter are whisked into a sauce just before serving. Mounting gives sauces texture and flavor as well as a glossy look.
Newburg sauce A very rich sauce of butter, cream egg yolks, sherry, and seasonings used over cooked shellfish such as lobster, crab or shrimp. It was created by a chef of the once famous Delmonico Restaurant in New York.
Non-saponifable Sterols, vitamins, dolichiols. See also saponifable lipids.
Oils Aggregates of unsaturated fats or a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fats that cannot form closely-packed structures due to unsaturation. The decrease in interactions is caused by the `kinks' in the hydrocarbon chains caused by unsaturation (c=c bonds). The cis bonds that predominate in natural fats exacerbate this effect due to their geometry. This decrease in interactions between the hydrocarbon chains lowers the melting point. These are usually liquids at room temperature. Example: vegetable oils are primarily made of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids.
Organic acid An acid containing carbon atoms, for example, citric acid and acetic acid, generally weak acids characterized by a carboxyl (-COOH) group
Oxalic acid (Ethanedioic acid) Present in leaves of some plants such as rhubarb and spinach; used as cleaning agent for rust stains on fabric and porcelain.
Oxidative rancidty Is the chemical oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids.