Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute
 Christopher W. Tyler
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Perspective Analysis Reveals Local Construction Defects by the Following Artists:

Type of vanishing point
Lateral Central Oblique
  15th Century Campin X
Van Eyck X X
Masolino X
Masaccio X
Donatello X
Uccello X
Ghiberti X
Piero della Francesca X
Pintoricchio X
Crivelli X
Bronzino X
Fra Angelico X
Fouquet X
Mantegna X
Leonardo X
16th Century Raphael X
Carpaccio X
Lotto X
Ambrosio Holbein X
Hans Holbein X
Titian X
Tintoretto X
17th Century Steen X
Vosmaer X
Neeffs X
Rubens X
18th Century Canaletto X

The paintings are labeled as having central or laterally-shifted vanishing points, or (oblique) distance points.

Christopher Tyler is Associate Director of the Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute in San Francisco. His research is focused on visual neuroscience and computational vision. His art interests include portraiture and general principles of composition, and the interface between art and perceptual science. His current studies include the structure of pictorial space throughout the history of art, and particularly the dramatic emergence of geometric perspective in the fifteenth century.

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