University of South Africa, Pretoria
 Susan Grundy
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Works cited

  • Carrell, JL. 2002. Mirror images: artist David Hockney shocks the art world with his claim that grand masters from van Eyck to Ingres secretly used lenses in their work. Smithsonian 32(11): 76-82.
  • Crary, J. 2003. The camera obscura and its subject [Online]. Reprinted from Jonathan Crary Techniques of the observer: on vision and modernity in the nineteenth century, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Available at: www.acmi.net.au/AIC/CAMER_OBSCURA.html (accessed on 9/9/03).
  • Falco, CM. 2003. FAQ [Online]. Available at: www.optics.arizona.edu/ssd/FAQ.html (accessed on 2/11/03).
  • Gernsheim, H. 1982. The origins of photography. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Gorman, MJ. 2003. Art, optics and history: new light on the Hockney thesis. Leonardo 36(24): 295-301. Also available at: http://www.standford.edu/group/shl/Eyes/hockney/
  • Hammond, JH. 1981. The camera obscura: a chronicle. Bristol: Hilger.
  • Hockney, D. 2001. Secret Knowledge: rediscovering the lost techniques of the Old Masters. London: Thames & Hudson.
  • Landi, A. 2000. Optical illusions. ArtNews 99(3): 134-41.
  • Lapucci, R. 1994. Caravaggio e i “quadretti nello specchio ritratti.” Paragone, March-July: 160-70.
  • Naughton, R. 2003. The Camera Obscura: Artisotle to Zahn [Online]. Available at: www.acmi.net.au/AIC/CAMERA_OBSCURA.html (accessed 9/9/03).
  • Puglisi, C. 2000. Caravaggio. London: Phaidon.
  • Rigoglioso, M. 2003. Masters of deception? [Online]. Available at: www.standfordalumni.org/news/magazine/2003/novdec/features/artoptics.html (accessed 6/2/2004).
  • Robb, P. 2000. M. London: Bloomsbury.
  • Stork, DG. 2004. Caravaggio’s “Supper at Emmaus” (1601-2): problems in refocusing, problems in the studio, problems with illumination [Online]. Available at: http://webexhibits.org/hockney/post/stork3.html (accessed on 11/4/04).

Notes

  1. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, Supper at Emmaus (1601). Oil on canvas, 141x196,2cm. National Gallery, London.
  2. Hockney 2001, p. 120.
  3. Ibid, p. 14.
  4. Stork 2004.
  5. Artemisia Gentileschi, Penitent Magdalene (c.1615-16). Alternative title: Conversion of the Magdalene. Oil on canvas, 146.5x108cm. Signed (on back of chair): ARTIMISIA LOMI. Galleria Palatina, Palazzo Pitti, Florence. Inventory: 142.
  6. Hockney 2001, p. 120.
  7. Artemisia Gentileschi, Portrait of a Gonfaloniere (1622). Oil on canvas, 208x128cm. Signed (on back of canvas, visible before relining): ARTEMISIA GENTILESCHA.FA/CIEBAT ROMAE 1622. Collezione Comunali d’Arte, Palazzo d’Accursio, Bologna. Inventory: 6.
  8. Stork 2004.
  9. Hockney 2001, p. 120.
  10. Puglisi 2000, p. 413.
  11. Quoted in Carrell 2002, p. 81.
  12. Quoted in Landi 2000, p. 137.
  13. Christiansen may, of course, have been misquoted, and have actually said: Michelangelo da Caravaggio, rather than Michelangelo and Caravaggio.
  14. Domenichino [Domenico Zampieri] (1581-1641) was a prolific and competent draftsman and combined “sketches, life drawings and cartoons in the development of his invention” (groveart.com. Sv “Domenichino”).
  15. Robb 2000, p. 6.
  16. Crary 2003.
  17. Hammond 1981, p. 24.
  18. Falco, 2003.
  19. Hockney 2001, p. 113-124.
  20. See Gernsheim 1982, Naughton 2003, and Hammond 1981, p. 15.
  21. levity.com; artehistoria.com sv “Daniele Barbaro.”
  22. Naughton, 2003.
  23. Robb 2000, p. 29.
  24. Ibid, p. 22.
  25. Ibid, p. 27-29.
  26. groveart.com sv “Giorgione.”
  27. Robb 2000, p. 5.
  28. Ibid, p. 280.
  29. Gorman 2003, p. 299.
  30. Clubb quoted in Gorman 2003, p. 298.
  31. Gorman 2003, p. 299.
  32. Ibid.
  33. My translation: Lapucci 1994, p. 160.
  34. Hockney 2001, p. 114. Gorman (2003: 295) challenges Hockney’s use of the term “mirror-lens,” claiming he is confused. However, both lens and mirror are (traditionally) made of glass. Bending the glass can create a magnifying effect, useful in optics. Essentially a mirror-lens would do its work by reflecting light, a clear lens by allowing light to pass through it. I don’t think Hockney is confused.
  35. Hockney 2001, p. 103.
  36. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio Sick Bacchus (c.1593-4). Oil on canvas, 66x52cm. Galleria Borghese, Rome.
  37. Hockney 2001, p. 114-15.
  38. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, Bacchus (c.1594). Oil on canvas, 95x85cm. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  39. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, Cheats (c.1594). Alternative titles: The cardsharpers or Card players. Oil on canvas, 91.5x128.2cm. Kimball Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas.
  40. Robb 2000, p. 64-5.
  41. Gorman 2002.
  42. “Accusato di praticare magia demoniaca, fu sotto il controllo dell’Inquisizione” (http://galileo.imss.firenze.it). See also: www.anotherscene.com/cinema/giam1.html http://web.tiscali.it/romaonlineguide/Pages/eng/rbarocca/sBWy1.htm
  43. Robb 2000, p. 48.
  44. Gorman 2002.
  45. Ibid.
  46. Robb 2000, p. 43.
  47. Falco 2003.
  48. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio, Matthew called (1599-1600) and Matthew killed (1599-1600). Oil on canvas, each 322x340cm. Contarelli Chapel, Church of San Luigi dei Francesi, Rome.
  49. Quoted in Rigoglioso 2004.
  50. Gorman 2003, p. 297.
  51. Gorman 2003, p. 299. The illustration captions of Matthew Killed and Matthew Called state clearly that they are “oil on canvas,” yet the editors of Leonardo have missed the fact that Gorman has cited them as “frescoes” in the text.
  52. Hockney 2001, p. 114.


Susan Grundy is a researcher in the field of Art & Optics with specific interest in 17th century artists, such as Michelangelo Merisi (da Caravaggio) and Artemisia Gentileschi. She is affiliated to the University of South Africa and lives in Italy. The above article has been abstracted from a University of South Africa Master’s Dissertation Artemisia Gentileschi and Caravaggio’s Looking Glass by Susan Grundy.

www.unisa.ac.za

 


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