A page from the "Causes of Color" exhibit...

Image credits

Image Resources


Introduction: Electric light found at <Freefoto>, Ref Number: 11-12-52. Fireworks found at <ERMA New Zealand>, copyright © ERMA New Zealand 2007. All Rights Reserved. Molten lava found at NASA’s astronomy picture of the day archives, <NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day Archives>, image for 2007 September 18, copyright Patrick Taschler. Molten lava in Hawaii, found at <Hawaiian Cruise>, copyright © Hawaiian Cruise. Aurora found at <Borealis 2000> Copyright Dirk Obudzinski 2000 – 2004. Sun found at <NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/images/content/93612main_sun1.jpg)>. Seeing heat: Tungurahua Volcano: <Geology News - Earth Science Current Events> 1999, Image by USGS. Black body radiation spectra: <Oslo University> The Sun: <NinePlanets>. Blacksmith photo: Windsor Star. The Blacksmith is Pio Colini, at Steel Mobilia Wrought Iron Furniture and Accessories, a Walkerville business in the old Peabody Building, photo by Scott Webster. Fireworks: <Getty Images> 79922079, Chinese Celebrate Lantern Festival. Silver anneal: <Silverstall>. Gold anneal: <A. Syberg Workshop> Color temperatures data from Photography by Infrared : Its Principles and Applications - Walter Clark/Henry Louis Gibson - Chapman and Hall (1939) and Wiley (1946 and 1978), via <Andy Finney>. Light bulbs and lamps: Light bulb and Edison: <Henry Ford Museum and Greenfield Museum>. Arc Lamps: Charles Brush at <VoltNet>. LED with incandescent bulb, image 5824211; compact fluorescent bulb, image 5424799: <iStockphoto>. Vapor lamps: Testing Hg vapor lamps, from the Smithsonian Institution American Museum of Natural History (CD 1964066 E&MP27.028), 1937. Original caption by Science Service (C) Westinghouse. This Hg image and the original caption have been donated by Science Service and are presented to you as they appeared in period publications. The captions were written by Science Service journalists and have been transcribed exactly. Although these images are protected by copyright, we encourage you to use them for academic and non-commercial pursuits. Fire and flames: Fire eater photo: William Rodrigues. Array of neon tubes: <iStockphoto>, image 5543589. Flame tests: Line spectra for hydrogen, helium and neon, Copyright © 2003 - 2008, <Visionlearning, Inc>. Flame test image: Copyright <K. Lawler-Sagarin>, 2004-2007. Oxyacetylene torch: <iStockphoto>, image 386740. Fireworks: Fireworks from <iStockphoto> image 4178975. Microgravity: Candle in microgravity: NASA New Science, and Microgravity Combustion Science Discipline Brochure. Astronomical: Sun image from <Solar and Heliospheric Observatory>. SOHO is a project of international co-operation between ESA and NASA. Images from NASA’s <Image of the Day Gallery>: Bok globules, 541; Cassiopeia supernova remnant, 532; Young stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud 448; Hubble repairs, 619; spiral galaxy Messier 101 image is the visible light view from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST); Jupiter and Ganymede from HST. Solar absorption spectrum, from <Kitt Peak National Observatory>. Comparative spectra for red shift: Copyright <Edward Wright of UCLA>. Red shift expansion diagram from <Mullard Space Science Laboratory>, University College of London Department of Space and Climate Physics. Stars: Sun’s layers diagram from <NASA>. Cat’s Eye nebula (pr2006001q), Crab nebula (pr2005037a) and Orion nebula (pr2006001q) from <HubbleSite> nebula gallery. Blue stragglers in Core of Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae from <Hubble Space Telescope>. Crab nebula: Wikimedia Commons. Black hole overflows in Centaurus A <NASA image of the day>, Image Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/R.Kraft et al.; Submillimeter: MPIfR/ESO/APEX/A.Weiss et al.; Optical: ESO/WFI Planets: Images of Mars (pr2003022g), Jupiter (pr1995018b), Saturn (pr2009012a), Neptune (pr2003017c), Uranus (pr2006042b): from the Hubble Space Telescope website, HubbleSite, in the <Solar System gallery>. Meteors: Leonid meteor shower from <HowStuffWorks>. Meteor shower from <PhysOrg.com>. Lightning: Times Square neon lights, <iStockphoto> image 4590918. Triboluminescence: Two pictures demonstrating triboluminescence effect: <Lewis Kozlosky>. Auroras: Swirls of bright green aurora above the airglow. The bright light in the lower left is a small city in Canada. Image courtesy of the Image Science & Analysis Laboratory, <NASA Johnson Space Center>, photo number ISS006-E-51691. Aurora photo series courtesy Jan Curtis, from the night of 6-7 February, 2000, at Chena Hot Springs Resort, some 70 miles east of Fairbanks. (Fuji 800 NHGII print film, 35 mm lens at f/1.4 to f/2.0 (exposure: 10-12 seconds). Auroras from the space shuttle: <NASA JSC Digital Image Collection>, NASA Photos, 06 May 1991, Aurora Australis, Sinuous Loop and Red Crown. Saturn’s Aurora taken by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. October 1998. Detailed image of the earth’s magnetosphere: <Windows on the Universe>, at the University of Michigan. An artist’s conception of the explosion of energy during a magnetic reconnection, <NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center> Conceptual Image Lab. Winter tree with Aurora Borealis: <iStockphoto>, image 2842673. View of auroras at both poles: Earth’s auroras make rare joint appearance in a feature film, published by <">NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center>, October 25, 2001 - (date of web publication). Folklore: Aurora over Beaufort Sea, image 8068 from <Alaska in pictures>. Causes: Three-colored aurora by Dick Hutchinson. Chemiluminescence: Glow stick images, images 40864 and 332773 from <iStockphoto>. Bioluminescence: Bioluminescence in jellyfish <The Journal of Young Investigators> Image courtesy of The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Photo Gallery. Bamboo coral photo by E. Widder, 1999, from <Ocean Explorer> website, part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the US Government. Bioluminescent mushrooms , squid, railroad worm at from the <Hastings Lab Home Page>, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Harvard University Biological Laboratories. Red tide luminescence: Image taken by Flickr user msauder at midnight at a Carlsbad, California beach during the 2005 red tide event. Cookie cutter shark photo from article in Upwelling by Michael Morris, published March 2007 in newsletter of the <Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association>. Firefly on leaf from <HowStuffWorks>. Angler fish: from <Corbis> images, ref. IH010544| Standard RM| © Bruce Robison/CORBIS, for National Geographic. GloFish: image from the <GloFish website>. Cerenkov: Reed Reactor image from <Reed College (reactor.reed.edu/images/cerenkov_jb.jpg)>.


Introduction: Blue water, Iceland: copyright <Guarav Dhup>. Glacier: from <Alaska in Pictures>, image 6772, cat. 16. Fall colors: Algonquin Park, Oliver Brunke. Purple gold in jewelry: from the <Jewellery Studio of Hans Meevis>. Tanzanite gem: <http://www.multicolour.com/gemstones/tanzanite.html>. What color is water? View of Earth from space, time-lapse movie from Galileo <NASA>. From <iStockphoto>: Green algae in Colorado River, Marble Canyon, image 3203058; red-brown river in Glen Canyon, image 802189; Banff National Park’s Moraine Lake, image 3451015, colorful coral reef, image 3525834; schooling jack fish, image 3101354. Colors from vibrations: Garibaldi Lake, Canada, turquoise water: Oliver Brunke. Image from <Virgin Islands National Park>, image VIIS2309 from National Park Service Digital Image Archives. Snow and ice: Clear blue iceberg, Tracy Arm, catalog 19, image 1377 ; Portage ice sculptures, catalog 7, image 56 from <Alaska in pictures>. Ice melting on surface of glacier: Oliver Brunke. Colors from bacteria: Red Sea resort showing the reddish landscape, image 3418797 from <iStockphoto>. Buoyancy info and photo of scientist sampling Trichodesmium is Andrew Negri of Australian Institute of Marine Science. Photo of bloom from space from <NASA JSC Digital Image Collection> (NASA PHOTO ID: STS009-35-1622). Island from space, (NASA Photo ID: STS73702051). Hot spring at Yellowstone National Park, image 4177064 from <iStockphoto>. From <NPS archives>, image 17708; Columbia Spring - algae pattern in run off; Hot Springs, Heart Lake Geyser Basin; JR Douglass; 1969, image 06079. Rock layers showing cyanobacterial effects: article by <A. H. Knoll>, 1999. Animal and plant dyes: Murex shells, image 4324410 from <iStockphoto>. Tyrian purple dyed fibers from <Tradition Mexico Hands-on Tours> website. Kermes mantle, from <Turkotek>, a website for rug enthusiasts. Cochineal beetle, from the <blog of Don Tai> in Canada, 9 Mar 2009. Cacti and cochineal on Lanzarote Information website, <Jules’ blog> of 28/12/2008. Red coat from the blog “<Walking the Berkshires>”, post of July 28, 2008. Strawberry icecream, image 845664; red drink, image 6503171, from <iStockphoto>. Lipstick from <Beauty Pro Division>, A professional beauty public relations and cosmetics industry blog, post of Jan 7, 2009. Lac insects from the article <Role of Lac culture> in biodiversity conservation: issues at stake and conservation strategy by K. K. Sharma et al, Indian Lac Research Institute. Shellac image from website of <Smith & Rodger>, est. 1877, manufacturers of wood-finish products. Indigo dye sample image is from <Wikipedia (indigo) (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Indigo_plant_extract_sample.jpg)>. Blue jeans image (ID 4652863) is from <iStockphoto>. Madder diagram from Madder flower from <Answers.com>. Green plants: Fall & fruit: Mixed leaves with red, Algonquin Park, photo by Oliver Brunke. Flamingos: Flamingo group, image ID 4767349; Lesser Flamingos at Lake Nakuru, image ID 3943658; flamingos at Caribbean coastal lagoon, image ID 3867979 from . Flamingo furor at the San Francisco Zoo, image by <cs on IMEEM>. Salmon jumping from Wild Scotland. Humans: Relaxing on the beach, image 790179 and person in tanning bed, image 6406665, from . Plants & colored organic molecules: White bird of paradise from <University of Florida>, IFAS Extension. Display of mixed vegetables is from <Paul and Bernice Noll>. Dark purple pansies, image from Wikimedia commons. Acacia with yellow blossom from the <Southern Highlands of NSW> website. Mixed red berries from <iStockphoto>, image 2697304. Bougainvillea Spectabilis and blooming cactus from Wikimedia commons. Amaranth from <iStockphoto>, image 7126818. Animal Pigments: Tiger, image 8186241; male lion, image 1733740; mandrill, image 7582755; house finch, image 8986974; cardinal, image 1240519; blue frog, image 1003222; albino corn snake, image 706902; white lion cub, image 1804916; chameleon, image 6060485 ; octopus, image 400841; from <iStockphoto>. De Melkmeid (c. 1658) by Johannes Vermeer, Rijksmuseum, The Netherlands. Assumption of the Virgin (1516-1518) by Titian, Basilica of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice, Italy. White bottlenose dolphin image from <HoaxSlayer>. White humpback whale from <The Sydney Morning Herald, June 26, 2007>. Praying Mantis courtesy of the animal section of <National Geographic>. Squid with and without ink from <Squid science: Field notes from Stephanie Bush> from the University of California Museum of Paleontology. Colorless gemstones: Colorless beryl image is copyright of <Fabre Minerals>. Clear corundum image is by Will Heierman of <Corunduminium>. Red Ruby: Ruby gem from Gemcolor catalogue, mineral from The Mineral Gallery. Green Emerald: Emerald and beryl gem are from Multicolour Gem suppliers. Emerald and beryl mineral are from Mineralogy database. Mineral postage stamps: Philatelic Mineralogy by Richard Busch. Malachite image is from <The Kingdom of Minerals>. Goethite and rhodochrosite images are from the <Mineralogy Database> website. Blue sapphire: Sapphire necklace, image 3162928; beer bottles, image 4340610 from <iStockphoto>, Multicolored sapphires: image by David P. Belanger of the <University of California, Santa Cruz>. Prussian blue in solution: from the <Interactive Periodic Table> by Dr. Mark R. McClure, The University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Blue aquamarine image is from <DK Images>. Cave painting is from the from south-eastern Libya, around 100 AD, via the <Agropolis Museum>. Ultramarine pigment in powder form: <Germes Online>. Lapis Lazuli: Photo: ©International Colored Gemstone Association/Bart Curren, via the <Nova Online> website. Amethyst: Topaz stones, image 550068; fluorite crystal, image 681357 from <iStockphoto>. Amethyst crystal is from <Jewelinfo4u.com>. Topaz crystals from Utah is by Stan Celestian, courtesy of the <Glendale Community College>. Blue topaz image is from <BoothandBooth> Online Jewellers. Gold: Leaf-shaped gold jewelry with purple gold inset, as well as purple gold ring, from the <Jewellery Studio of Hans Meevis>. Book of Hours excerpt is from the <Dallas Public Library>. Diamond ring with flowers of rose gold and leaves of green gold is from <The Jewelry Experts>. 18-karat gold rings in pink, white and green from <The Nolita Collection>. Anodized colored aluminium from the web page <Anodizing Aluminum>, by Rod Newman. Titanium anodized wall art from <Bernie Wire>. Colored stainless steel wall sculpture is by the <A. Zahner Co. Architectural Metals>. Purple gold, black gold and blue gold images are from the <World Gold Council>. Gold nano particles in reflected and transmitted light are from an article by Michael Cortie, <MSJA Journal> 2008. Particles absorbing at different wavelengths showing particle size and color is from an article by P.M. Hansen at the <Niels Bohr Institute>. CdSe nanoparticles in UV and ambient light, different colors, is from Exploring the Nanoworld at <The University of Wisconsin-Madison Materials Research Science and Engineering Center> (UW MRSEC). Vermillion: Silicon wafer with integrated circuit detail, image 3556087 from <iStockphoto>. Blue diamonds: The Hope diamond from Encyclopedia Smithsonian and NMNH. Doped semiconductors: <iStockphoto> images include barcode, image 354162; inside of CD-ROM drive, image 3982229; laser skin treatment, image 4013407; engineer testing fiber optic cables, image 3574246. Six LED image is from <CVC International>. Fluorescence: Green highlighter pen: image 3967948; UK police motorbike, image 5571790; fluorescent bike sign, image 560779; from <iStockphoto>. UV light on fluorescent paint on hand: (c) 2000-2002 Vijay Pande and <Stanford University>. Fluorescent vest from Wikipedia. Blackminton shuttle glows in UV light: from <Cool Hunting>.


Introduction: Rainbow from <NPS Yellowstone archive> Index 02609.jpg, Rainbow above cliffs in Gardner Canyon; Photographer: S Gniadek; 1976. Sunset from <NPS Yellowstone archive> Index 06436.jpg, Sunset from Mt Washburn; Photographer: J Schmidt; 1977. Sky over Golden Gate: from <NPS Yellowstone>: Golden Gate; Photographer: J Schmidt; 1977; Central. Bubbles: <Eikonographia> Copyright Michiel van Raaij 2006-2008. Iridescent shell: <Sea Shell City>. Opal stones: <Opals of Light and Fire>. Rainbows: Rainbow image from <NPS Yellowstone> files, Image 02616, Rainbow in Hayden Valley; Richard Lake; 1967. Prism and light, NASA © <The Exploratorium>. Refraction images, glass of water and eyeglasses, image ID 402241; blinds through glass of water, image ID 3972353 from <iStockphoto>. Rainbow over Niagara Falls, photo by Oliver Brunke. Rainbow with extending arc over Iguazu Falls, photo by Ewan Rayment, from <Atmospheric Optics>. The Blind Girl by John Everett Millais, 1856, Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery, Birmingham, England. Photograph of double rainbow and tree, copyright 2006 <Dan Bush>, Missouri. Supernumerary rainbow, image ID 3010769 from <iStockphoto>. Refraction: Rainbow image from <NPS Yellowstone files>, Image 02616: Rainbow in Hayden Valley; Richard Lake; 1967. Prism and light: © <The Exploratorium>. Other atmospheric effects: Green flash images by <Mila Zinkova>. Fata morgana desert mirage, image 2679528; ice halo, image 3312847 from <iStockphoto>. Dispersive refraction: The <Centenary Diamond>, copyright De Beers. Comparison of isotropic and anisotropic crystals from <Chapter 7> of Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, S. O Kasap, Prentice-Hall Inc., 2001, ISBN: 0-201-61087-6. Chromatic aberration in Venus image from the <Institute of Astronomy> at the University of Cambridge. Chromatic aberration in house photograph from <Michigan Tech>. Newton’s telescope from the <Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences>. Telescope diagrams from "Exploration of the Universe" by Abell, Morrison, and Wolff, 5th edition, located at <Department of Physics and Astronomy> at the University of Pennsylvania. Blue or black sky? Full moon rising, from Space Shuttle Discovery, <NASA> image #S103-E-5037, date: 21 December 1999. Earthrise, NASA #G69-44-6552; HQ ref: AS11-44-6552; taken by Apollo 11 Astronauts; date: Jul 16, 1969. Blue & red: Sky color simulations by Sang Yoon Lee. Purple sunset colors image by Ed Austin/Herb Jones; 1987: 16493.jpg from <Yellowstone Park, NPS Archive (www.nps.gov/archive/yell/slidefile/celestialatmospheric/Sunrises%20&%20Sunsets/Images/13439.jpg)>. Batman cover from William F. Jourdain’s , Batman Comics, Batman 59, June-July, 1950’s. "Batman" and all related characters and symbols depicted in this site are the copyrighted works and trademarks of DC Comics, Inc. Leonardo da Vinci and Sir John Tyndall drawing from <Polarized Lighting>. Earth shadow: Different views of sunrise at Kitt’s Peak from "Color and Light in Nature" by David K. Lynch and William Livingstone, page 40. Mars: Colors of the sky from from special edition of the German "Spektrum" magazine (Scientific American), Kristian Schlegel in "Die Farben des Himmels," Spektrum, Spezial Farben, April 2000. Skyglow from Art Upgren, "<Dissecting light pollution>" in Sky and Telescope. Martian dust storm, image from <JPL, NASA>. Blue eyes: The little girl with blue eyes is named Ruby, photo from blueyz6315. Use of Raman spectroscopy in painting from article Rosy discoloration by another name by David Bradley, 1, 2007 in <Spectroscopy Now>. Butterflies: The butterflies for the SEM came from the collection of Randi Jones, a butterfly artist form Kingston, WA. More photos and info from special edition of the German "Spektrum" magazine (Scientific American), "Schillernde Schmettlingsflügel," Spektrum, Spezial Farben, April 2000. Photo of morpho butterfly with closed wings from J-Philippe Soule at <CASKE 2000>. More butterfly photos: Chrysiridia riphaeus - uraniidae (Madagascar) - <The beautiful world of butterflies>, by thais.it. Wing structure from H.F. Nijhonf: The Color Patterns of Butterflies and Moths, Scientific Am. 1981, 245, p. 104-115. Diagram of scales from Pete Vukusic and Roy Sambles of the Thin Film Photonics Group at University of Exeter, UK. Additional information, and diagram adapted from New Scientist, 26 June 1999. Uraniid moth: image from <DKImages> Iridescence: Stomatopod crustaceans from <Roy L. Caldwell>, Professor of Integrative Biology, Department of Integrative Biology, University of California at Berkeley. Pearl: Mother-of-pearl image from <Sea Shell City>. SEM of brick layers in Trochus niloticus from <MIT>. Abalone image ID 4975268 from <iStockphoto>. Peacocks: Beetles: Iridescent blue beetle image from Flickr user <imarsman>. Iridescent green beetle; image 2756767 from <iStockphoto>. Bubbles: Six bubble array from <Mila Zinkova (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Soap_bubbles1.jpg)>. David Stein photo from . Bubble cluster from Photodisc. Holograms: Multicolored holographic paper, image ID 2154431, 500-Euro note, image ID 5083294 from <iStockphoto>. Photoelastic stress analysis: Satellite image from a <NASA> tutorial on remote sensing from ERS-1 satellite, NASA. Newton’s rings from <DK Images>. Opal: Water waves: <Chiu-king Ng>, a high school physics teacher in Hong Kong. Double slit applet, and light diffracted through 15 slits: <Institute for Theoretical Physics>, Hannover, Germany. DVD photograph by Oliver Brunke. Light bulb viewed through diffraction grating: photograph by <Robert Anderson>. Opals: image from <House of Opals>.


Introduction: Isihara plate 8. Kelso ski run in summer, in normal and tritan vision: Oliver Brunke, index DSC00253. Images show normal vision with comparison of tritan. Bee in flowers: Oliver Brunke. Owl eyes from <NPS archive (www.nps.gov/archive/yell/slidefile/birds/owls/Images/17028.jpg)> Captive Great Horned Owl - used in Yellowstone Association class; Jim Peaco; June 1996. Color guide: image ID 6201147 from <iStockphoto>. The visible spectrum: Idea for <Electromagnetic spectrum> figure adapted from Elizabeth Moxon, MicroWorlds (1996), Advanced Light Source, Berkeley Lab, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the United States. In the eye: Eye cross-section adapted from <Ed Scott>. Rods and cones illustrations are courtesy of <John Moran Eye Center, University of Utah> and <HowStuffWorks Express>. Microconsciousness: Strawberries (c.1905); Pierre-Auguste Renoir, oil on canvas, 28 x 46cm; Musee de l'Orangerie at Paris. André Derain, Charing Cross Bridge, London, 1906, National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, John Hay Whitney Collection. Le Rifain assis (1912-1913), oil on canvas, Henri Matisse in the collection of the Barnes Foundation, Merion, PA, USA. Poor People on the Seashore (1903): Pablo Picasso, oil on panel, National Gallery of Art, Washington. Sketch of Kant, by J. L. Raab, after a painting by Döbler. Seeing color: Bovine rhodopsin image is courtesy of the <Theoretical and Computational Biophysics Group, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign>, Pathway, eye to LGN to visual cortex: <Stanford Center for Image Systems Engineering>. Constancy: Descent from the Cross, by Pedro Machuca, 1547; panel; Museo del Prado, Madrid. Descent from the Cross, by Rembrandt van Rijn, 1634; oil on canvas, 62 x 46 in. (158 x 117 cm); Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Descent from the Cross, by Max Beckmann, 1917; oil on canvas, Museum of Modern Art, New York. Color Theory: Baptism of Christ and the Annunciation by Leonardo da Vinci, from the website by <Martin Kausal> Copyright © 1997-2006. Newton’s prism NASA image © <The Exploratorium> Primary colors and mixing of colors: Additive and subtractive primary colors ©1998-2007 <Janet Lynn Ford>. Images of Le Blon’s portrait, © 2005 <Bruce MacEvoy>. Representations: Historical color systems, courtesy of Hans Irtel. Color wheel ©1998-2007 <Janet Lynn Ford>. Newton-color circles © 2005 <Bruce MacEvoy>. Working with color systems: The <computer color spectrum> is released under the <GNU Free Documentation License 1.2>. Metamerism images are from a copyrighted <web page on metamers> is maintained by Martin Hubbe, Associate Professor of Wood and Paper Science, NC State University. More metamers from <Color Matters> Copyright (c) 1995-2007, J.L.Morton, All rights reserved. Energy of color: Image as for Visible spectrum. Colorblindness: How do things look? Field of pink and orange flowers, photograph by Oliver Brunke. Causes & incidence: L- and M-cone opsins diagram from a paper by <Ethan Montag> of the University of California, San Diego. Animal vision overview: Ici by Joan Mitchell, (1992), Oil on canvas; diptych, 9’ 2 1/4" x 13’ 1 1/2" (260 x 400 cm) overall, Saint Louis Art Museum, Missouri. Horse color testing image, and Schlieren photograph of fish lens from <Lund University> research pages. Mouse color testing from <Color Matters for Kids> Mantis shrimp eyes from a photograph by <Apokryltaros> Honeybee nm from John W. Kimball. The Bullfight by Edouard Manet, 1865-67, Oil on canvas, 48 x 60,4 cm, The Art Institute of Chicago. Birds: Image of comparative spectral sensitivities for human and European starling, and oil droplets from <Gary Ritchison of Department of Biological Sciences, Eastern Kentucky University>. Swainson’s hawk: Photographer unknown, June 1997, NPS, Yellowstone Digital Slide File, image 15478.jpg. Screech Owl; Willis Peterson, no date; from NPS, Yellowstone Digital Slide File, image 01150.jpg. Butterflies: Butterfly UV photos from Eddie Aicken, when he was obtaining his degree in Biological Imaging, at the University of Derby, UK. UV of blackeyed susan from John W. Kimball.

Photos not credited are from the private collection of Michael Douma, or licensed from stock agencies including Corbis, PhotoDisc, and Getty Images.

Most of the diagrams are provided by our illustrator, Hemant Patankar.

Original text from Kurt Nassau includes thanks to Ets. Ceramiques Pierre Gilson, F. Mijhout, and to R. L. Bams for diagrams; other illustrations are reproduced from K. Nassau, The Physics and Chemistry of Color, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1983.