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Salt Most butter is available in a lightly salted form. The salt is a preservative and also adds to the flavor. Although some butter made from sweet cream is not salted, lightly salted butter is sometimes called "sweet cream butter." Unsalted butter may be referred to as "sweet butter."
Saponifiable lipids Fatty acids, triacylglycerols, waxes and compound lipids. See also non-saponifable lipids.
Saturated fatty acid A fatty acid with no double bonds tween carbon atoms; it holds all of the hydrogen that can be attached to the carbon atoms
Sauce A thickened and flavored liquid that is created to enhance the flavor of the food that it accompanies. In the days before refrigeration, sauces were used to disguise the taste of foods that were going bad.
Saute [saw-TAY] In French, saute means "to jump." That describes this method of cooking in which food is cooked quickly in a small amount of butter or oil. The food "jumps" as it is either rapidly stirred or shaken over heat.
Scalding To increase temperature very rapidly
Score Refers to the grade of butter. Butter is graded/scored by government inspectors on the basis of flavor, aroma, body and texture.
Seasonal variations Because butter is an all-natural product, made from the highest quality dairy cream, natural seasonal variations in the fatty acid composition occur. These variations, however, do not affect the quality of the butter.
Sharp salt Attributable to the use of too much salt or lack of sufficient working to obtain thorough distribution of salt and water.
Shortbread A rich crumbly cookie made of butter, flour, and sugar. The classic way of making shortbread is to press the dough into flat decorative molds and cut it into wedges after baking.
Shortening Any animal or vegetable fat-butter, margarine, lard or dripping.
Smoking point The temperature at which butter begins to scorch and burn. A higher fat content butter yields a higher smoking point.
Smothered Suggestive of improperly cooled cream.
Solid fat index SFI. Measures the solidity of fat, i.e., ratio of fat in crystalline form to liquid, at various specified temperatures. Butter has a sharp sfi curve resulting in quick flavor release.
Souring Bacteria, mold, water, air, light, enzymes and some metals can accelerate souring. Souring results in the formation of free fatty acids, such as butyric acid and caproic acid, and the butter becomes soapy in flavor.
Specks Small white or dark yellow particles. Attributable to small particles of coloring or coagulated casein. White specks present may be small particles of curd formed during heating of improperly neutralized sour cream or from partial coagulation caused by sweet-curdling organisms during pasteurization.
Starter distillate Concentrated flavor distillate from lactic acid cultures and other bacterial cultures which may be optionally used in the production of cultured butter.
Stearic acid (octadecanoic acid) Tallow (beef fat).
Storage Bulk butter should be kept in poly-lined cartons under refrigerated (32 to 38¡F; 0-3¡C) conditions for up to four months or frozen (-10 to -20¡F; -23 to -29¡C) for up to one year. Butter must be stored away from highly aromatic foods and in storage rooms with controlled relative humidity (80-85 percent).
Sweet butter Unsalted butter
Sweet cream butter Lightly salted butter
Table cream Light cream, 18-30% butterfat.
Tallowiness Tallowiness is caused by the increase in melting point under the action of water, atmospheric oxygen and light. An unpleasant, tallowy flavor is the result. Packaging must therefore be made opaque and airtight.
Tertiary butylhydroquinone Tbhq. An antioxidant used to decrease oxidative rancidity of fat or oil. Improves oxidative stability, antioxidants
To whisk or whisking A technique to rapidly beat or whip as much air (volume) as possible into a mixture or one ingredient (usually heavy cream or egg whites). This is accomplished using a wire whisk or electric mixer. A whisk is made of several wires that are looped together into a teardrop shape and attached to a wooden or stainless steel handle. They come in many different sizes and shapes with the wires of various amounts, thicknesses and flexibilities. Whisks can be used to whip, blend, or stir ingredient(s).
Tocopherols An antioxidant used to decrease oxidative rancidity of fat or oil. Natural antioxidant, improves oxidative stability
Toffee A chewy and tender candy made of sugar and butter boiled together. Sometimes, other ingredients such as cream, nuts, or chocolate are added.
Trans configuration The hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides of the double bond, particularly with unsaturated fatty acids
Triglycerides Neutral fat molecule made up of three fatty acids joined to one glycerol molecule through a special chemical linkage called an ester. A type of lipid consisting chemically of one molecule of glycerol combined with three fatty acids
U.S. Grade A Butter is made from fresh cream, has a slightly stronger flavor and possesses a fairly smooth texture. Grade a butter is also widely available.
U.S. Grade AA Has a smooth, creamy texture and is easy to spread. It contains a light, fresh flavor and a small amount of salt. Grade aa butter is made from sweet cream and is available at most grocery stores and supermarkets.
U.S. Grade B Butter can be used by consumers for table use. It is usually made from sour cream and is more coarse in texture.
Unsalted butter Contains no salt and is sometimes labeled as "sweet" butter. It is preferred by many for cooking and baking. Salt acts as a preservative, and without it, butter is more perishable.
USDA standards Butter is classified primarily on flavor characteristics and is then rated according to body, color and salt. A final grade is assigned based on the combination of all four attributes. Grades include AA, A and B. All butter sold in the United States must contain at least 80 percent milkfat.
Utensil A flavor suggestive of unclean cans, utensils and equipment.
Valeric acid (pentanoic acid) From valerian root.
Visible fat Refined fats and oils used in food preparation, including edible oils, margarine, butter, lard, and shortenings
Vitamin A Butter contains about 3,000 IU of vitamin A per 100 grams, or 153 IU per serving (1 pat/ 5 grams).
Wavy Unevenness of color. Color characteristic attributable to insufficient working, resulting in an uneven distribution of the water and salt in butter.
Whip or whipping A mixing technique used to incorporate air into an ingredient or mixture (i.e. Egg whites, heavy cream) to increase its volume and make it light and fluffy. This is done by vigorously beating in a circular motion using a wire whisk or electric mixer. Egg whites are often whipped and then added to cake batters to make them less dense so they have more volume when baked. Whipped heavy cream can be added to custards or sauces to make them lighter.
Whipped butter Butter which has had air or other acceptable gases (e.g., Nitrogen) whipped into it, resulting in a product with greater volume, reduced density and improved spreadability at colder temperatures. Typically packed in tubs, cups, or bulk. Whipping improves the spreadability of butter.
White sauce A term for light white or blond sauces. In its simplest form, white sauce is cream or milk mixed into a white roux (a combination of butter and flour which isn't browned). This basic French sauce is called "béchamel."
Whole milk Regular milk. Close to 4% fat.